Volume 4, Issue 4, December 2019, Page: 85-90
Cassava Mosaic Disease and Associated Gemini Viruses in Bauchi State, Nigeria: Occurrence and Distribution
Mustapha Abubakar, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria
Dharmendra Singh, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria
Jibrin Naka Keta, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria
Received: Sep. 15, 2019;       Accepted: Sep. 29, 2019;       Published: Oct. 24, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajpb.20190404.15      View  29      Downloads  10
Abstract
Cassava mosaic disease is one of the most important biotic constraint affecting Cassava limiting the production potential of the crop in Northern Nigeria. This study was carried out to evaluate the current status of Cassava mosaic disease incidence, severity, infection type, whitefly abundance in the farmers’ field as well as to determine the virus strains causing the disease in Bauchi State, North eastern Nigeria. A total of thirty three (33) farmers’ fields were surveyed and in each field, thirty plants were assessed along the two diagonals with respect to disease incidence, severity, infection type and whitefly abundance and leaf samples were collected from each field for the virus diagnosis. The results revealed that Cassava mosaic disease incidence was highest in Ganjuwa (88.66%) and lowest in Darazo (43.33%). The disease symptom severity was generally mild. It was also highest in Ganjuwa (2.85) and lowest in Darazo (1.34). Whitefly infection is most prevalent (59.73%) than cutting borne infection (2.67%) in the Districts. Adult whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) population was highest in Ganjuwa (56.33) followed by Kirfi (40.93) and lowest in Toro (27.63). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results using specific primers for African Cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African Cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) detected single infections of ACMV and EACMV in 62.4% and 12.9% of the positive samples respectively. Co-infections of ACMV and EACMV were detected in 10.6% of the tested samples. Continuous monitoring of Cassava Mosaic Viruses and whiteflies population is required to provide appropriate management strategies of the disease in Nigeria.
Keywords
Bauchi, Severity, Whitefly, ACMV, Polymerase Chain Reaction
To cite this article
Mustapha Abubakar, Dharmendra Singh, Jibrin Naka Keta, Cassava Mosaic Disease and Associated Gemini Viruses in Bauchi State, Nigeria: Occurrence and Distribution, American Journal of Plant Biology. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2019, pp. 85-90. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpb.20190404.15
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Abarshi, M. M., Mohammed, I. U., Jeremiah, S. C., Legg, J. P., Lava Kumar, P., Hillocks, R. J. and Maruthi, M. N. (2012). Multiplex RT-PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of both RNA and DNA viruses infecting Cassava and the common occurrence of mixed infections by two Cassava brown streak viruses in East Africa. Journal of Virology Methods. 179, 176-184.
[2]
Adeniji, A. A., Ega, L. A., Akorodo, M. O., Ugwu, B. O. and Balugu, A. D. (2009). Cassava development in Nigeria. A country case study towards a Global strategy for Cassava development Pp 5-6.
[3]
Alabi, O. J., Kumar, P. L. and Naidu, R. A. (2011). Cassava mosaic disease: A curse to food security in Sub Saharan Africa. Online APS net features. Retrieved 12 January 2017 from http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Pages/cassava.aspx
[4]
Aloyce, C. R. (2013). Development and evaluation of efficient diagnostic tools for Cassava mosaic and Cassava brown streak diseases, Pp 9-15.
[5]
Asare, P. A., Galyoun, I. K. A., Asare- Biediako, E., Sarfo, J. K. and Jetteh, J. P. (2014). Phenotyphic and molecular screening of Cassava Genotypes for résistance to Cassava mosaic disease. Journal of general and molecular virology. 6 (2): 6-18.
[6]
Bar, E. S., Bamkefa, B. A., Winter, S. and Dixon A. G. O. (2011). Distribution and current status of Cassava mosaic disease and Begomoviruses in Guinea. Article in AJRTC. 9 (1): 17-23.
[7]
Bisimwa, E., Walangululu, J. and Bragard, C. (2012). Occurrence and Distribution of Cassava Mosaic Begomovirus Related to Agro-ecosystems in the Sud-kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. Asian Journal of Plant Pathology. 6, 1-12.
[8]
Bull, S. E., Briddon, R. W., Sserubombwe, W. S., Ngugi, K., Markham, P. G., and Stanley, J. (2006). Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Cassava mosaic viruses in Kenya. Journal of General Virology. 87, 3053–3065.
[9]
Chikoti PC, Ndunguru J, Melis R, Tairo F, Shanahan P, and Sseruwagi P (2013). Cassava mosaic disease and associated viruses in Zambia: occurrence and distribution. International Journal of pest Management: 59: 63-72.
[10]
Chikoti, P. C., Tembo. M., Chisola. M., Ntawarahunga. P. and Ndunguru. J. (2015). Status of Cassava mosaic disease and whitefly population in Zambia. African journal of Biotechnology. 14: 2539-2546.
[11]
Douglas A, (2004). Geographical, historical and political profiles of Nigeria. Pp 6-7.
[12]
Fargette, D., Konate, G., Fauquet, C. M., Muller, E., Peterschmitt, M. and Thresh, J. M. (2006). Molecular ecology and emergence of tropical plant viruses. Annals of Phytopathology: 44, 235-260.
[13]
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2012). Food Outlook report. http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/al981e/al981e00.pdf
[14]
Hillocks R, Maruthi M, Kulembeka H, Jeremiah S, Alacho F, Masinde E, Ogendo J, Arama P, Mulwa R, Mkamilo G, and Kimata, B. (2015). Disparity between leaf and root a root symptoms and crop losses associated withCassava brown streak disease in four countries in eastern. African Journal of phyto patholology. 64 (2): 86-93.
[15]
International institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) (2016). Laborotory manual for the Diagnosis of Cassava Mosaic Disease, Pp 25-55.
[16]
Irungu, J. (2011). Prevalence and co-infections of Cassava with Cassava mosaic Geminiviruses and and Cassava brown streak virus in popular cultivars in Western Kenya. M. Sc. dissertation. Pp 5-10.
[17]
Kawano, K., 2003. Thirty years of cassava breeding for productivity-biological and social factors for success. Crop Sciences. 43: 1325-1335.
[18]
Kumar, P. L., Alabi, O. J., Akinbade, S. A., Maruthi, M. N., Naidu, R. A. and Legg, J. P. (2009). Rapid single-step multiplex reverse transcription-PCR for the simultaneous detection of Cassava brown streak virus, African Cassava mosaic virus and East African Cassava mosaic virus in cassava. International Conference on Cassava Cultivation and Utilization in Central Africa Kisangani, RDC, 16 to 19th November, 2009.
[19]
Kenneth, G. M. (2007). Epidemiology of Cassava mosaic disease and molecular characterization of Cassava mosaic viruses and their associated whitefly vector in South Africa, Pp 2-9.
[20]
Lodhi, M. A., Ye, G. N., Weeden, N. F. and Reisch, B. (1994). A simple and efficient method for DNA extraction from grapevine cultivars and Vitis species. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter. 12: 6-13.
[21]
Legg, J. P., Jeremiah, S. C., Obiero, H. M., Maruthi, M. N. Ndyetabula, I., Okao-Okuja, G., Bouwmeester, H., Bigirimana, S., Tata-Hangy, W., Gashaka, G., Mkamilo, G., Alicai, T., and Lava Kumar, P. (2011). Comparing the regional epidemiology of the Cassava mosaic and Cassava brown streak virus pandemics in Africa. Virus Research 159: 161-170.
[22]
Legg, J. P., Kumar, P. L., Makeshkumar, T., Tripathi, L., Ferguson, M., Kanju, E., Ntawuruhunga, P and Cuellar, W. (2015). Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiolology and management. Virus Research 91: 85-142.
[23]
Maruthi, M. N., Bouvaine, S., Tufan., H. A., Mohammed, I. U. and Hillocks, R. J. (2014). Transcriptional Response of virus infected Cassava and identification of putative sources of Resistance to Cassava Brown Streak Disease PLoSONE; 9 (5): e96642. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096642.
[24]
Mohammed, I. U., Ghosh S, and Maruthi, M. N. (2016). Host and virus effects on reversion in Cassava affected by Cassava brown steak disease. Plant pathology. 65: 593-600.
[25]
Mohammed, I. U., Ghosh, S. and Maruthi, M. N., (2017). Generating virus free Cassava by in vitro propagation with chemical and heat treatment. African journal of Biotechnology. 16, 1551-1560.
[26]
Marcel, M. M., Kabwe, k., Claude, B., Patrick T, D., Stephen W., and Adrien, K. M. (2012). Incidence, severity and gravity of Cassava mosaic disease in Savannah Agro-Ecological Regions of DR- Congo: Analysis of Agro- Environmental factors. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 3: 512-519.
[27]
Ndunguru, J., Fofana, B., Legg, J. P., Challappan, P., Taylor, N., Aveling, T., Thomson, G. and Fauquet, C. (2008). Two novel satellite DNAs associated with bipartite cassava mosaic begomo viruses enhanced sysmptoms and capable of breaking high virus resistance in Cassava landraces. In: Proceeding of the First Scientific Meeting of the Global Cassava Partnership (GCP-I) Ghent, Belgium, July 21-25, 2008.
[28]
Ntawurahanga, P., Okao-okuja, G. Bembe, A., Obambi, M. Armand, J. C. and Legg, J. P. (2007). Incidence and diversity of Cassava mosaic disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo. African crop science journal. 15: 1-9.
[29]
Obiero, H., Akhwale, M., Okao-Okuja, G. and Asiimwe, p. (2007). Monitoring and diagnostic survey of Cassava mosaic disease in Western kenya. Pp 1-13.
[30]
Omongo, CA., Kawuki, R., Bellotti, A. C., Alicai, T., Baguma, Y., Maruthi, M. N., Bua, A. and Colvin, J. (2012). African Cassava Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, Resistance in African and South American Cassava Genotypes. Journal of Integrated Agriculture. 11: 327-336.
[31]
Sangare, M., Atcham, T., Olivier, K., Bagui, I., Traore, A., Jeremie, B. and Thouakesseh, Z. (2015). Classification of African mosaic virus infected Cassava leaves by the use of multi spectral imaging. Optics and phonic journals. 5: 261-272.
[32]
Sowunmi, A. and Akintola, J. O. (2010). Effect of climatic variability on Maize production in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental and Earths sciences. 2 (1): 19-30.
[33]
Sseruwagi, P., Legg J. P., Maruthi M. N., Colvin J., Rey M. E. C. and Brown, J. K. (2009). Genetic diversity of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations and presence of the B biotype and a non-B biotype that can induce silverleaf symptoms in squash in Uganda. Annual Applied Biology. 147: 253-265.
[34]
Tempo, M., Mataa, M, Legg, J., and Ntawuruhunga, P. (2017). Cassava mosaic disease: incidence and yield performance of Cassava cultivers in Zambia. Journal of plant pathology. 99, 681-689.
[35]
Toualy, M. N. Y., Akinbade, S., Koutoua, S., Diallo, H. and Kumar, P. L. (2014). Incidence and Distribution of Cassava mosaic begomoviruses in Côte d’Ivoire. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research, 4 (6): 131-139.
[36]
Winter, S., Koerbler, M., Stein, B., Pietruszka, A., Paape, M., and Butgereitt, A. (2010). The analysis of Cassava brown streak viruses reveals the presence of distinct virus species causing Cassava brown streak disease in East Africa. Journal of General Virology. 91, 1365–1372.
[37]
Worldmeters (2017). United Nations estimates. Accessed February 12, 2017.
Browse journals by subject